Sending Requests via ISO ILL

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Like most other ILLiad Borrowing processes, ISO ILL requesting is dependent upon following the normal procedures outlined in this guide. To avoid problems when processing ILLiad ISO ILL requests, follow the normal ILLiad Borrowing procedures unless instructed to do otherwise.

The ISO Commands

The following table explains the commands used with ISO ILL Borrowing requests.

Cancel ISO Request Moves the request to Cancelled by ILL Staff and generates and alert
for the Lender.
Expired Request Moves the request to Cancelled by ILL Staff and generates an alert
for the Lender.
Status Request Does nothing to the borrowing request. Generates an alert for the
Lost Item Moves the request to Awaiting Lost Item Processing.
Conditional No First moves the request to Awaiting ISO Conditional Reply No then to
Awaiting Unfilled Processing (Lender not alerted that you hit No).
Conditional Yes Does nothing to the borrowing request. Moves the Lending Request to
Request Conditionalized and then Awaiting Conditional Request


Borrowing requests come into ILLiad as usual and are routed to Awaiting Request Processing or to a custom queue. Pull up the request and search it as normal, whether on OCLC, a local or remote OPAC, or some other resource.

Sending the request via ISO ILL

Adding the Lending String

Determine the ISO ILL library or libraries to which you would like to send the request and enter that symbol or symbols into the Lending String field on the Request Form. The format should look something like this: OCLC:ABC,AG: XYZ. The lending string allows multiple symbols with dashes (A-G:TENN:ABCD) for ISO routing to the second and third lenders. We do not recommend stringing more than five potential ISO Lenders together in the same Lending String.

Changing the System ID

Change the SystemID to ISO in the dropdown. This will update the field names to reflect that you are sending this request via ISO ILL.

Adding an ISO-REQ Note

To add a note to the transaction to be carried through to potential lenders with the request, you may do so by adding a note to the transaction and changing the note type to ISO-REQ. Only one note per transaction may be given this note type. Notes with this note type will be sent along with the transaction to potential lenders.

Sending the Request

Click Request Sent on the Borrowing Processing Ribbon to send the request via ISO ILL. ILLiad sends the request to the lending library instantly via the ISO ILL protocols. If you search and decide to not send the request on ISO, you can send via OCLC, or Docline as usual with no changes in ILLiad.

Forwarding Requests via ISO ILL

ISO ILL requests can be forwarded (or referred) to another ISO ILL LIbrary on the same server within ILLiad using the standard ILLiad route menu.

When a Lending request is received for a site, if that site needs to send the request to a different site on the same ILLiad server, they can choose Route from the Borrowing Processing ribbon at the top of the request and choose the site to receive the forwarded request.

This takes the request and marks it as Cancelled by ILL Staff, with a Reason of Cancellation of Referred via ISO ILL. The request is returned via ISO ILL to the Borrower/Requester, and automatically forwarded back to the new ILLiad site (if the Requester is using ILLiad,  or any system that supports the ISO service.

This differs from non-ISO ILL requests. Non-ISO ILL requests in ILLiad are moved from one site to the other. ISO ILL requests are cancelled at the original receiving library and a new request is received at the referred library.

Possible Responses to ISO ILL Requests


If you receive a shipped message, ILLiad adds that information to the history for that record as well as noting the lending library and due date.


If you receive a conditional, the request goes to Awaiting Conditional Request Processing for you to respond either Conditional Reply - Yes or Conditional Reply - No.


If you receive a Cancellation/No response, the request goes to Awaiting Unfilled Request Processing for you to search and send again via either ISO ILL or any other system that ILLiad currently supports.

All other steps of the Borrowing process in ILLiad are the same for ISO ILL requests. Receiving the item, delivering it to the customer and returning it within ILLiad are exactly the same for ISO ILL requests, with the exception of updating. You do not need to send updates to any external system (those are done automatically and instantly).

ISO ILL Tracking Window

In both Borrowing and Lending, the ILLiad Request Form displays a new ISO ILL Ribbon that shows all ISO ILL APDUs sent and received for any request. You can see the dates and times that the APDUs were sent and received, as well as all data elements included. APDU - Application Protocol Data Unit - A unit of data which conforms to a protocol standard and which is exchanged between application layer protocol entities.

See for more information.

Changing Note Types for ISO ILL

When sending requests using ISO ILL, it will take the last ISO note from your notes table and send it as the note that is associated with the request. Since sometimes you'd like to send a note with a request that was entered as a non-ISO note (and vice versa), you can now change the Note Type associated with a note. Right-click on the note you want to change and select Change Note Type to... and select the note type you'd like to have for the note.

Sending and Receiving ISO ILL Messages

ISO ILL Messages can be sent and received between 2 ISO sites. These messages can contain any text, ranging from a request for a status update to a question about a citation.

Sending ISO Messages

ISO ILL Messages can be sent between 2 ISO sites. Choose the ISO ribbon on the Details page of the Request Form, and click Send Message located on the Manual Options section of the ribbon. This will prompt you to type in the message you want to send to the other site regarding this request. When you finish typing and hit Send, the message is sent to the other site and is stored in the Notes field.

Receiving ISO Messages

When an ISO ILL Message is received, it changes the current status of the request in ILLiad to ISO Attention. Open the Request Form and review the message by reading the notes field. If it requires a reply, you can send a reply message via the Send Message icon on the ISO ribbon, mentioned above.

Once you have replied to the message and want to put it back to its prior status in ILLiad, simply choose the Revert to Prior ILLiad Status on the ISO Manual Options section of the ISO Ribbon. This will look at the tracking in the request and put it back at whatever status it was at before the ISO ILL Message was received.

Other ISO ILL Concerns and Workflow Issues

Expire Dates

ISO ILL requests in ILLiad use the NotWantedAfter date field when sending the requests to determine the "drop dead" date for that request for the lending site. Once this date is reached, the request is automatically returned to the sending library via ISO ILL with an APDU type of Expired, and the status will go to Awaiting Expired Request Processing. If items are going to Expired status before you expect them, check the NotWantedAfter date when sending the request. In the ILLRequest APDU, it is called expire-date and it is sequence number 1.12.3.

ISO ILL Auto Holding of Received APDU until Shipped APDU is received from Lender

When using ISO ILL and interacting with non-ILLiad ISO ILL systems, it is possible for you to receive the article or loan from the lender before they've updated their system to Shipped. (Because of workflow in ILLiad, this is not a common problem between ILLiad sites.) In order to allow your ILLiad workflow to continue, ILLiad automatically holds the Received APDU until it receives the Shipped APDU from the Lender. Once the Shipped APDU is received, the Received APDU is sent automatically by ILLiad. The graphical display of the ISO ILL Tracking in ILLiad will show a different icon for Received APDUs that haven't actually been sent yet - and there will be a note beside it saying that it is waiting on a Shipped APDU from the lender.

ISO Sending Failed - Resending ISO ILL Messages (APDUs)

ISO ILL requests in ILLiad are sent via the TCP/IP method of ISO ILL on port 1611. If something goes wrong during this process, ILLiad will move the request to ISO Sending Failed and place a note in the notes field as to the cause. The most common cause of this is that the ISO Address of the site you are sending the request to doesn't exist in ILLiad. To resend a request, check the note in the request, and if it says that the address does not exist, fix that via the Address Maintenance Form. Once that is done, you can open the Request Form, find the problem in the ISO Tracking display (any failed APDUs will be marked with a red X), right-click on the one what you want to resend, and choose Resend Selected APDU. You can watch the status update on the ISO Tracking screen by right-clicking on the ISO Tracking view and choosing Refresh ISO Tracking.

ISO Illegal State Transitions

When using ISO ILL, ILLiad restricts the sending of ISO ILL APDUs based on the ISO ILL state tables, as defined in the ISO standard. This prevents ILLiad from sending "illegal" APDUs (for example, an ILLAnswer - Unfilled after an Expired has already been sent).

If an action in ILLiad generates an illegal state transition, the ISOStatus will be updated to an error reason (an example is "Invalid State Transformation"). When you open the request in ILLiad, the Errors tab will display and the ISO Attention button will be enabled. Additionally, the error will appear in the ISO Manager Alerts area. You can clear the error by using the ISO Attention button on the Errors ribbon page on the request form, or by clicking the Clear Selected Errors button in the ISO Manager Alerts area.


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